Art, Math and Science at first seem like very different subjects, but they are related in variety of ways. Experience the relationship between math and art by creating a miniature world inside a box and learn how linear perspective works.

**Diorama (Creating illusion of depth using perspective)**

Why do things further away look smaller? Why we cannot see objects that are behind other objects? Learn how we perceive depth and make a miniature world inside a box.

**Objectives:**

- Notice various depth cues we use to perceive distance.
- Understand why the distance affects the apparent size of objects.
- Understand why the closer objects block the view of objects in distance.
- Experience the connection between art and math (perspective art and projective geometry).

**Materials:**

- Box
- Everyday craft supply (construction paper, craft foam sheets, tissue paper, pompoms, etc.)
- Glue (hot glue works well for this project)
- Sample Picture (Depth Cue) (included in this document)
- “Perspective Projection Principle” image (included in this document)

**Tools:**

- Pencils
- Scissors
- Markers

Artists use various depth cues to create an illusion of depth. Perspective is one of them. It is a technique to change the size and position of objects in relation to each other to make objects appear closer or farther away. Examine the picture below to see how we perceive a sense of depth.

Here are some of the things you might notice looking at this picture.

- Parallel lines meet at a point on the horizon.
- Things farther away appear smaller.
- Straight lines remain straight but angles of objects may change when photographed.
- Closer objects block the view of farther away objects on the same sight line.
- Objects closer to the horizon are farther away from the viewer.
- There are other depth cues such as outline, texture, color and brightness.

**Note:** When we look at real three dimensional objects or sceneries, we also get depth cues from using two eyes together (binocular vision).

**Additional Information**

**Why do things further away look smaller?**

When viewing an object, the light rays from the top and bottom of the object determine the size of the image projected on the picture plane. A picture plane is an imaginary plane between the viewer’s eye and the various objects. The projected image gets larger as an object moves closer to the eye, and it gets smaller as an object moves further away. This is the basic idea artists use to create perspective drawings.

**Why can’t we see the objects that are behind other objects?**

The line of sight is a line that connect a distant point and an observer’s eye.

All points that lie along the same line of sight connect to a single point on the picture plane. If there are two points that lie along the same line of sight, the point nearer to the observer blocks the light from the point farther away.

Image Credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Perspective_Projection_Principle.jpg

**Perspective uses mathematical rules.**

Artists use perspective to draw realistic objects or scenery on a flat surface. It is a systematic technique to create illusion of distance and depth by projecting three dimensional objects onto two dimensional surfaces.

The development of perspective in art during the Renaissance era lead to renewed interest in projective geometry, a branch of mathematics that focuses on the geometry of projected space.

Geometry is a study of shapes in space and how they are related. The size and shape of objects may change when they are projected onto a different space, but some properties stay the same. Projective geometry deals with the properties and invariants of geometric figures under projection. For example, now we know why straight lines stay straight when photographed, although the shapes of objects may be deformed in the picture. We study mathematics to advance the understanding of the world we live in.** **

**Create the diorama using perspective and other depth cues.**

Now you are ready to create your own diorama. Before you start you might want to find images of dioramas on the internet to see how artists use various depth cues to create the scenery. The American Museum of Natural History has many beautiful dioramas.

**Step 1: Choose your theme**

Think of a scene you would like to create inside the box. It can be an imaginary forest, underwater world, a scene from a book you read, a place you visited, etc. Incorporate various objects at different distances to enhance the 3D effect.

**Step 2: Gather materials**

Find a box and gather materials you can use to create your diorama. If you can not find suitable box, you can make one from scrap cardboard.

**Step 3: Create the background and cover the ground**

Glue a sheet of paper or a picture inside the back panel of the box. Extend the background to cover the ground. Think of the vanishing point and adjust the height of the horizon as necessary.

**Step 4: Add layers and objects to the scene. **

Make far away objects smaller, and closer objects larger to create a sense of depth. Use other cues to add more depth information.

**References and Resources:**

http://www.marthastewart.com/910338/how-make-forest-diorama

http://peabody.yale.edu/james-perry-wilson

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This exploration/activity gives a brief overview of the art of the Huichol Indians and their culture, focusing on the connections around the concept of unity. It includes a guided art investigation using Huichol works from Mingei International Museum’s collection and a hands-on art project inspired by the designs and process utilized by by Huichol art makers.

Thought to be descendants of the Toltec and the Aztec cultures, the Huichol, or Wixarika as they refer to themselves, live among the Sierra Madre Occidental Ranges in northwestern Mexico. The Huichol culture survived colonization by the Spanish, due in part to their chosen location, and today thrives much the same as it always has.

The Huichol culture is known worldwide for their colorful yarn paintings and beadwork. These works connect deeply to the Huichol’s shamanistic spiritual beliefs and the complex cosmology and deities that can be seen throughout their work. The Huichol are firm believers that art and life are inseparable, so themes often include a retelling of a spiritual journey with a strong reverence towards nature. Symbols such as The Trinity (the deer – the spirit guide, the corn plant – wisdom and the peyote plant – knowledge) would be known by all within the culture and hold strong spiritual meaning.

The Huichol have adapted to the global market by adding brighter colors to their color palette and by flattening their compositions, making them easier to ship. The Yarn Paintings, used for both decorative and spiritual purposes, are created by coating the wood base with a mixture of beeswax and tree resin (natural glue), followed by the addition of colored yarn that is carefully laid down revealing complex figures and designs, leaving no surface uncovered.

Unity, cohesion and harmony are underlying themes in Huichol compositions. All of the different forms and figures seem to come together in a cohesive way, telling a deeply detailed and symbolic story. In the 1978 book, *Art of the Huichol Indians*, Barbara G. Meyerhoff proposes that both internal and external unity is experienced by the Huichol. Internal unity refers to the loss of ego and consciousness (during religious/shamanistic experiences) and external unity refers to the connection between a person and their environment.

This sense of unity, cohesion and harmony in Huichol work and life can be seen in the piece from Mingei International’s collection below.

Consider this work and the concept of unity by using the following guiding questions:

- What does the concept of
*unity*and/or*unification*mean to you? How would you expect that to be conveyed in a work of art? - How is the concept of unity presented in the Huichol work above?
- Does the concept of unity exist in mathematics?
- Is there unity between mathematics and art? How so?

After exploring the concept of unity in Huichol art, create your own Huichol yarn painting using unity as a component of your design.

** ****Materials**

- Colored yarn
- Elmer’s Glue
- Cardboard or Cardstock
- Chalk or Pencil

Note: Use thicker yarn for younger students.

**Objectives**

Students will…

- Learn about the Huichol culture by viewing and creating yarn paintings using cardboard or cardstock, Elmer’s glue and colored yarn.
- Learn about the Huichol culture and their strong reverence and respect for nature, and then use nature as a theme in an original work of art.
- Understand that art is made from a variety of materials, highlighting the use of colored yarn to make a painting as opposed to using paint.
- Gain experience in manipulating non-traditional materials in order to realize a design.

**Prep**

- Cut the cardboard or cardstock to size, deciding what size will be manageable for students to fill in. The project takes time and larger pieces may cause frustration when trying to fill entirely with yarn. 5” by 5” is a manageable size.
- Prepare and complete an entire example.
- Prepare the materials.

**Procedure**

- Draw a simple design with chalk or pencil on the cardstock. Both materials can be erased easily. Due to the time and skill needed to execute the full design in yarn, a simple design is suggested.
- Place the glue over the outline of your design and lay down yarn over the glue, starting with the outlined area and moving inwards.
- Fill in the details with desired colors of yarn.
- Cover the entire piece with yarn.

**Teaching Tips**

There are several techniques to utilize in working with yarn. Students can estimate the length needed and cut pieces of yarn. Students can cut several small pieces of yarn and find a place for them. Students can also spiral the yarn. The only technique to avoid is bunching and overlapping. Each piece of yarn should have its own place on the cardboard.

**Project Example**

**References**

The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, multiple authors (1978). Art of the Huichol Indians.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, New York

David, K. & Primosch, K. (Nov. 2001). Instructional Resource – Art of the Huichol People: A

Symbolic Link to an Ancient Culture. Art Education, Vol. 54, No. 6

** **

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By using mathematical reasoning and problem solving, create and design your own Japanese Temari ball using principles of geometry and thread.

This intricately woven traditional Japanese craft has had many uses. It began in China as a men’s kicking game like hacky sack, and has evolved to a child’s tossing game, a women’s craft pastime and a mother’s gift to their child.

The ball can be made with any type of fabric for the base, wrapped in felt and finally the design is woven, wrapped or threaded. Mathematical thinking and problem are inherent in the beautiful and complicated designs that are seen on Temari balls. And, some Temari balls even have a bell inside.

**Materials**

- Yarn
- Thread
- A needle
- Sciccors

**Procedures**

- Role the yarn into a tight ball, approximately the size of your fist.
- Tie the end of a neutral colored thread, and wrap the yarn ball in thread (diagonally) until you can no longer see the yarn.
- Attach pins to the ball to create a grid that you will use to make your design. Place one pin at the top of the ball and one pin at the bottom (north and south pole). Then place pins evenly space around the center of balls (perpendicular to the first pins) to create what looks like the equator.
- Using different colored threads (one at a time) sew the end of the thread to the ball a few time, then wrap the thread around the ball and pins to create your designs. When you are finished with a particular colored thread wrap it around one of the pins and sew through the ball a few time to secure it.
- For a more detailed description of this process with pictures,visit: http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-Temari/

While Making the Temari Ball document how you are approaching your design by using the following terms and chart. Write the terms as you are using that particular step. There is no “correct” route, your particular steps may go in any order. Explore how you are using mathematical problem solving to recreate a beautiful folk art tradition.

**Record Your Process**

Experiment/Test/Research | Testing the limits of the string against the ball. Trying to see how far off the middle it will go without falling off or needing a pin. |

Conclusion | I think….. |

Hypothesis | I will try… |

Art, Math and Science at first seem like very different subjects, but they are related in variety of ways. Experience the relationship between math and art by creating beautiful curves using series of straight lines.

**Make Curves Using Straight Lines**

Connect regularly spaced dots using a ruler to create geometric patterns. Systematically placed straight lines can produce outlines of beautiful curves.

**Objectives:**

- Experience the relationship between math and art.
- Explore the math behind line art.

**Materials and Tools:**

- Pencil
- Eraser
- Ruler
- Line art template (at the end of this document)
- Colored pencils. (Optional).

**Steps:**

- Draw a line from the farthest mark from the origin on the y axis (vertical line) to the closest mark to the origin on the x axis (horizontal line).
- Connect the 2nd farthest mark on the y axis to the 2nd closest mark on the x axis.
- Continue connecting lines between the points by moving down on the y axis and across the x axis.
- The resulting curve is a beautiful parabolic arc.

**Variations**

- For younger children, reduce the number of points on the paper.
- Label points with numbers to show which points to connects together.
- Glue the template to a piece of cardboard for curve stitching
- Use coloring pencils.
- Use a different line art template (see resources) or create your own.
- Use two other sides to create a second , third or fourth curve.
- Use a different method to connect dots.

Art, Math and Science at first seem like very different subjects, but they are related in variety of ways. Patterns and structures are often found in artistic representation and scientific study. Patterns are also fundamental to mathematics. Many scientists and mathematicians study shapes and patterns to understand the world we live in. Artists often study the world we live in and represent it with shapes and patterns they find.

**Additional Resources:**

Other ways to make line art: http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/56710.html

More beautiful envelopes: http://mathforum.org/mathimages/index.php/Envelope

Doodling in Math Class: https://www.khanacademy.org/math/math-for-fun-and-glory/vi-hart

More line art templates: http://www.muminthemadhouse.com/maths-and-art-collide-parabolics-curves/

**Mathematical Background**

A set of lines that share a common equation is called a “family” of lines, and the curve a family of lines create is called an “envelope”.

If we use a regular xy coordinate as a template for this line art activity, then we find the numbers on x and y axis where each line cross always add up to the same value., So we have a “family” of lines, and we can describe all lines using just one equation.

Scaling the sum value to 1, each line has x and y intercepts of (t, 0) and (1-t, 0) (t is any number between 0 and 1). So the line equation in intercept form can be written as

The envelope of a one-parameter family of curves given implicitly by F(t,x,y) can be found by solving

==========

So what is the equation of the curve that appears when we connect corresponding marks of our template?

Take the equation that describes our family of lines

And clearing the fractions and rewriting our line equation, it becomes a quadratic equation in “t”,

For every point (x, y) on the straight lines, there is a real number value for “t” . Since both F and F’ are 0 on the boundary points on the curve, t there has to be a double root of *F*(*t*, *x*, *y*).

So the equation for the envelope curve can be found by setting discriminant of the function to 0.

This is an equation for a tilted parabola.

**References:**

http://www.ams.org/samplings/math-behind-the-curve.pdf

https://plus.maths.org/content/bridges-string-art-and-bezier-curves

]]>Art, Math and Science at first seem like very different subjects, but they are related in variety of ways. Experience the relationship between math and art by creating mind boggling anamorphic illusion art.

- Simple 3D object (Cube or Pyramid works well)
- Anamorphic Projection Stand (or a stand with a viewfinder)
- String
- Paper
- Pencil

- Cardboard boxes
- A Pole with a stable base and a viewfinder
- String
- Chalk
- Blue Painter’s Tape or Colorful Duct Tape

The light rays from each point on the object travel in straight lines to enter the viewer’s eye. If we extend these lines and plot points at where lines intersects with another surface, the resulting image is a central projection of the original object.

If the projection surface is perpendicular to the viewer’s line of sight, the projected image will look like an ordinary perspective drawing.

If the projection surface is not perpendicular to the viewer’s line of sight, then the projected image is an anamorphic projection of the original object.

Looking from the point of projection, the morphed image loses its distortion and becomes a misleading frame of reference for a viewer to judge the distance.

The stick figures in our sample picture look like they are standing at the same depth of field viewed from a particular point. In reality the person on the left is standing much closer to the viewer thus looks much bigger. View with a camera or with one eye closed to get the full effect of this illusion.

https://anamorphicart.wordpress.com/2010/04/22/plane-anamorphosis/

There are a number of ways to create anamorphic images. Here, we are using a string stretched from a stationary viewfinder to points on a object. Stretched string simulate the light rays traveling from points on an object to the viewer’s eye.

Relying on projective geometry, anamorphic images can be created using a central projection to map points from a 3D object to their corresponding locations in a 2D anamorphic projection. One tool that can help create these images is an Anamorphic Projection Stand.

Instructions:

- Be sure the projection stand is affixed firmly to the desktop. It is imperative that the center of projection does not move as you map points from the 3D object to the page where you’ll draw the anamorphic projection. It is equally important that the 3D object you are projecting remains in the same location; it can be moved only if it is returned to its exact original location-‐ be sure to begin by marking the points on the base of the 3D object so that its original location is marked.

- In the viewfinder, the center of the eye hole-‐ where the projection string originates-‐ is the center of projection. The string is the projection line. Using the string to map points from the 3D object to the desktop, you’ll draw the 3D image on the desktop exactly as it appears to you when you look through the eye hole. In other words, if an edge is visible to you through the eyehole, then it will also appear in the drawn anamorphic projection; if an edge is not visible through the eyehole, then it will not be drawn (eg if it is on the back side of the 3D object and thus occluded). To project a point, pull the string taut so that it just barely makes contact with the 3D object and extends down to the desktop. Mark the point on the desktop where the string makes contact-‐ this is the projected image of the point on the 3D object. You may want to mark the points: for example, call the point on the 3D object A and its corresponding projection A’ (called “A prime”). Continue mapping points until you have enough to reconstruct the projected image.
- Connect the projected points to form the projected image. If two points on the 3D object are connected by an edge, then the two corresponding projected points will be connected by an edge in the projection. That is, if AB is a line on the 3D image, then A’B’ will be a line in the projected image.
- Now remove the string from the eye hole and view the projected image-‐ it should appear 3D. But it will only appear 3D when viewed from that exact location, the center of projection. Take a photo through the eye hole to make the 3 dimensionality of the image even more convincing. Adding color and shading to the image may also increase the appearance of 3D. To view the image without the projection stand, note the height of the center of projection (this is etched on the projection stands you used in the workshop), and also the distance between the 3D object and the center of projection.

**Q:** What can I use if I do not have a Anamorphic Projection Stand?:

**A:** You can build a substitute Anamorphic Projection Stand with a ruler, a box and a binder clip. Tape the ruler to the box and add weight to the box if the stand is not stable.

**Q:** What do I do if the object blocks the path of the string?

**A: **If the string can not be extended from a certain point of the object to the paper, mark the base of the object and pivot the object to clear the path of the string. Make sure to return the object to its original position after mapping the point.

Build a large Anamorphic Projection Stand with a pole and a heavy base. Following the instructions to create the small anamorphic projection, plot projection points on the ground and connect them to form an image. Use colorful tapes to outline the image, use chalk to fill each side of object with different color.

Position the camera at the center of projection (the location of the viewfinder) to take the picture.

**Notes: **

- The entire system must remain static, with the exception of the projection line (the yarn), while creating the projection
- Anamorphic images will only appear 3D when viewed precisely from the center of projection
- For more information please visit: http://informalmathematics.org/projective-geometry-and-anamorphic-projection/

*For more information on creating an Anamorphic Projection Stand, please contact Bohdan Rhodehamel **at bohdanr561@yahoo.com*

We presented our panel to over 30 attendees on Day 1 of the California Association of Museums Conference. Our panel spoke to how our participation in Informath built our staff capacity, forged new relationships in and outside of Balboa Park and opened new channels for abstract funding.

Please enjoy our presentation by clicking here: InforMath CAM 2017 Presentation.

For more questions about our experiences or how to collaborate with us, get in touch!

Click Here to Contact Ashanti Davis, Fleet Science Center.

Click Here to Contact Kevin Linde, Museum of Photographic Arts.

*In cover photo, from left to right: Ashanti Davis, Chantal Lane, Kevin Linde, Cierra Rawlings. CAM Conference 2017 *

4 classroom teachers + 2 science center educators + 3 research staff + paper strips + paper squares + straws + pipe cleaners + food + talk + …

**A mix of educators worked with materials, exploring forms and ideas through action, perception, and many modes of talk. **

Participants chose among three activities, which provided starting points for exploration. Some curled, cut, and taped colored strips of paper to make “curly birds” and curvilinear sculptures (left, foreground). Intersecting and concentric circles raised themes of pattern, measurement and precision. Another pair of participants folded origami ninja stars (left, background), accompanied by talk of forms in nature and biomimicry. A tetrahedron fractal model provoked conversation and exploration of repeated structure (center), while a math teacher and science educator engaged in spatial modeling of fractals with straws (right). They wrote mathematical equations describing recursive relationships, and talked about shape, length, sides, geometric proof, precision, tools, prediction, mathematical practices, classroom and field trip pragmatics.

They talked while they worked and played. In this case, there was no distinction. Experimenting, noticing, problem solving, and reflecting, sometimes with grand overarching relevance, “Math isn’t about getting the right answer that the teacher somehow magically knows, it’s about discovering something and proving that it’s true.”

A science center educator asked, “What do teachers look for in informal activities?” “Teachers look for content…what can I do in my classroom next week?” They continued making and talking. They worked in anticipation of STEAM Family Day, when two weeks later, they would field test their activities and engagement strategies. The workshop organizer expressed a focus for next time—incorporating Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMPs)—suggesting attention to precision, use of appropriate tools, measurement and prediction. Concluding the session, she reinforced the collaborative aspiration of the workshop series, “We want to learn from you.”

**The wide-open exploration and divergent flow of ideas in week one converged into focus areas in week two. The group focused on two SMPs*—attention to precision and appropriate use of tools—and two activities. **

*Standards for Mathematical Practice

“What is the goal for STEAM Day?” “I have trouble playing without a goal.” They decided to create a challenge, a problem for participants to solve, a purpose to drive the activity as a way into the open-endedness. Discussion ensued about defining a goal, setting parameters, establishing and acknowledging constraints on materials and time.

They narrowed the field of activity options, yet with more detailed definitions came another flowering of ideas. The goal could address “real problems,” such as structure and function, stability and strength. Pretend to be an architect. Build an assembly of straws, pipe cleaners, glue. Meet a height requirement. How much weight can it hold? Predict, build, test. Attend to aesthetics. Is it beautiful or ugly? How does it make you feel?

They generated words associated with construction, “to provoke thinking,” to expand the vocabulary for imagination and action: build, design, create, engineer, explore, discover, imagine, invent, geometry, challenge, structure, function. Questions came in flurries, “What are they doing with the SMPs?” “Is there a mathematical end to building a structure?” “How much do we want to force them to use math?” “…give them graph paper, scales…?” “and other tools, protractors, rulers, scissors, pencils…” “This is just a test, an experiment.”

Questions remained unanswered as they circled in on a plan, often talking in broad terms, negotiating the structure, content, and affordances of the activities. “We want them to make sense of problems, to persevere, to analyze constraints, and their relationships with goals.” “The SMPs are a lens to do math.” “But we’re not really doing math.” “Why don’t we see what we’re doing as math?”

“Math & the Arts Common Vocabulary” used in K-12, added to and shaped the conversation. What words resonate for you? Symmetry, part, whole, pattern, vertical, diagonal, parallel, perpendicular…

“We can create questions that get them to math concepts.” “How can we promote meaningful conversation with STEAM Day visitors?” “We can ask, what are you trying to do? What strategies did you use? And highlight repeated patterns.” “How might you create a variation on that theme?” “We can also use sentence frames such as ‘I notice…’ and ‘I wonder…’”

They made a game plan for the next week, defining materials, tools, constraints, questions, and an objective: design and test.

**Educators worked with visitors to the Fleet Tinkering Studio on STEAM Day.**

For our third workshop, we went straight to the Tinkering Studio and jumped into activities with visitors to the Fleet Science Center. This day, designated STEAM Day throughout Balboa Park, offered an array of activities that weave together science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics. At one table, educators invited participants to build structures with straws, pipe cleaners, and hot glue, and test their ability to bear weight. At another table, they worked with paper strips and tape to make curvilinear sculptures, such as curly birds. After two hours in the Tinkering Studio, we discussed the experience. Educators highlighted lessons learned in response to the questions (in bold) below.

**What did you notice about how people engaged with the activities?**

- People were willing to work without instruction; they’re willing to jump in and jump out.
- We need to pose a challenge that isn’t too daunting and provide examples that provoke, inspire, and encourage iteration.
- To make it matter, people need to have a purpose.
- They can make their activity matter to them by creating a story, as people did with the curly birds (where does it live, what does it eat, etc.).
- We need to engage the parents; they can make or the break the interaction.

**Regarding tool use, attention to precision, and structure. Did you see those practices in play?**

- People used tools. (Discussion and disagreement arose about what is
*mathematical*tool use. When and how can rulers be used mathematically?) - Making a tool comes out of necessity.
- Someone proposed that diagonals could be tools, used to strengthen the structure, raising the question
*what is a tool?*

- How might shapes, with different structures and symmetrical properties, be used as tools in this context?
- Ideas can function as tools for productive exploration. Contrasting examples, such as symmetry and asymmetry, opens up options and consideration of consequences.
- Discussions of structure included themes of symmetry and asymmetry, aesthetics and beauty, and relationships among them.

**What would you keep? What would you change?**

- Pre-make some structures as examples or things for people to build on, improve, and strengthen.
- Make a specific display space, and invite visitors to make a label for this museum exhibit.
- Explicitly invite comparison of strategies and structures.
- Find ways to explore the limits of what participants know. Ask questions that might expand their perception of possible pathways forward.
- Explore ideas in two- and three-dimensional space, and relationships between them.

**Can you describe an experience when you felt integrated art and math?**

- Some activities (e.g. curly birds) seemed more artsy-craftsy, focused on making something “pretty.”
- We can find ways to make the activities more “mathy,” such as draw a plan; change the scale; translate 2D into 3D; distort proportions; change ratios.
- Revisit fractals (worked on during the first workshop). There are so many opportunities to integrate art and math with fractals.
- Use architecture as a way to frame the activity, exploring form and function, and naming structures.
- Intentional use vocabulary that bridges art and math brought attention to the union of art and math.

**What did we accomplish in bringing together formal and informal educators?**

- We focused our thinking about learning for all ages, i.e. life long learning in informal settings outside of school, and Common Core emphasis on skills, practices, and conceptual connections across grade levels in schools.
- Formal educators found it interesting to focus on the experience, not just the content to be learned. Also, of interest, how the Standards for Mathematical Practice can come into play in a less structured setting.
- Together, we explored how to pose questions to stimulate thinking.
- We discovered interesting possibilities when working with everyday objects.
- Intrinsic motivation is essential to high quality engagement in any setting.
- When teachers go to museums, they want something unique and different from school.
- There is tremendous value in spaces for learning that aren’t like school.
- Formal and informal learning can be (should be!) complementary.
- We can co-create learning communities that bridge formal and informal education.

These educators came together to explore and learn together, sharing their diverse expertise about math, art, and education. Some of their questions remain open—What and where is the math in these activities? When and how do we make the math explicit? Open questioning, in a relaxed, playful, and profoundly collaborative process, embodies the spirit of InforMath.

Professional development workshops focused on integrating math and art were organized by Ashanti Davis and Ashley Atwell at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, with support from the InforMath Collaborative.

*Blog post by* Nan Renner

The InforMath research team is working to develop ways to make mathematics less abstract, and counter widely circulating cultural notions of mathematics as difficult and esoteric which inflect many learners’ experiences with this discipline, and ultimately have the unfortunate potential to discourage participation in or identification with mathematics and other STEM topics.

We hope you’ll join us and participate in this community. Our goal is to become a resource for both formal research, as well as a place to find curated articles, papers, and videos that support our mission.

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